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How Much You Know About American Drama? 你所不知的美剧文化

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American TV series always be broadcasted just after shooting. Every season from the middle of September to late April every year, which is fixed time to broadcast. As an important symbol of American popular culture, American TV series do not rigidly adhere to the material and topic, while its form of sophisticated production, diversified and unremitting pursuit of art are continuing to attract global audiences’ eyes.
美国电视剧一般摄播同步进行,以每年九月中旬至次年四月下旬为一个播出季,每周固定时间播送一集。身为美国流行文化重要符号,美剧不拘泥于老套的选材与类型,以精良的制作、多元化的表达方式和对艺术的不懈追求,持续吸引全球观众的注目。

SITUATION COMEDY 情景喜剧

Situat ion comedy is a comedy show composed of the quality of story and skill of actor. Almost all the situation comedies are about 30 minutes every set, while some are about 60 minutes every set (including advertising time). Most of the situation comedies are fixed multi camera in indoor studios, generally with a live audience i n l a u g h t e r recording. A small part of situation comedies show as a false documentary with single shot, without pre recorded “canned laughter”. Classic Situation Comedy: Friends, Will & Grace, Modern Family.
情景喜剧是一种喜剧演出模式,由剧本品质与演员功力双环构成。大部分每集长度为30 分钟左右,也有一集60 分钟左右的(包含广告时间)。大部分情景喜剧是在固定的摄影棚内多机位拍摄的,通常为室内戏,一般还会有现场观众参与笑声录制。小部分以伪纪录片方式呈现,单镜头拍摄,往往没有预先录制的“罐头笑声”。经典情景喜剧:《老友记》、《威尔与格蕾丝》、《摩登家庭》。

SOAP OPERA 肥皂剧

House wives are the main audiences of soap opera, whose sponsors are companies of daily necessities with the stage of ordinary family living environment. Daytime soap operas fixed 5 episodes
every day during t h e day. Every episode has a number of narrative lines to push the story to a moving climax in a week. Daytime soap opera produced higher, cost lower and production cycle is shorter, while an evening soap opera is similar to the daytime’s on the side of structure, which is broadcasted in the evening prime time. Classic Situation Comedy:Beacon Light, Dynasty.
肥皂剧以家庭主妇为主要观众,家庭日用品商家为赞助商,普通家庭生活环境为舞台。日间肥皂剧,每周白天固定播5 集,每一集中都是几条叙事线路并存,在一周中由一个悬念引向一个动人的高潮。日间肥皂剧产量高、成本低且制作周期短。晚间肥皂剧,在结构上与日间相似,在晚间黄金时段周播。经典情景喜剧:《指路明灯》、《豪门恩怨》。

DRAMA SERIES 情节系列剧

In the United States, in addition to Situation Comedy and Soap Opera, other programs are drama series, whose structures are basically the same. Each episode is divided into prologue, the main play, titles and the end of the movie. The drama series 24 Hours is the best example. Some American series told about only one or very few storylines, such as Murder, Right, while some dramas
included lots of story clues, such as Suspect. In those dramas, plots and clues were often associated with each other, which were finally combined to form a whole story, with the absorbed plot, which is passed off without mishap.
在美国,电视播出的除情景喜剧、肥皂剧以外的戏剧都可以划为情节系列剧。在结构上也基本上是一成不变的。每集分为:序幕、片头、主戏、片尾,情节系列剧《24 小时》就是最好的例子。有些美剧的故事只围绕一个或非常少量的故事线索,譬如《谋杀》、《昭雪》,而有些美剧的故事线索却很多,譬如《疑犯追踪》,情节和线索之间往往相互关联,这些情节和线索最后交叉在一起,构成一个完整的故事整体。情节波澜起伏,剧情发展扑朔迷离、引人入胜。

UNIT PLAY 单元剧

Each set of unit play is selfcontained with compact structure, but closely related to the rest of the collection and the main characters will not change easily. Classic Drama Unit : Community Alliance, NCIS, Law And Order: Special Victims.
单元剧每一集本身自成体系,结构精巧,但与其它各集紧密联系且主要人物不会轻易变动。经典单元剧:《废柴联盟》、《海军罪案调查处》、《法律与秩序:特殊受害者》。

Sitcom 连续剧

Sitcoms always divided into several episodes. The main characters will not be changed easily. Classic Sitcom: Lost, Homeland Security, Crisis Edge.
连续剧情节连续而分为若干集,主要人物不会轻易变动。经典连续剧:《迷失》、《国土安全》、《危机边缘》。

ANTHOLOGY SERIES 诗选剧

Composed with many independent stories, which had no connection between each other, anthology series were divided into three modes: 1. Each episode contains several independent stories,
such as Love Marks; 2. Each set is completed independently, such as Hitchcock Theatre; 3. Each season is separate from other chapters, such as American Horror Story and True Exploration and
so on.
多个故事独立成篇而分篇之间毫无关联,其中还细分为三种模式:
1. 每集内含数个独立故事的,如《爱痕》;
2. 各集独立完整的,例《希区柯克剧场》;
3. 单季独立成章的,有《美国恐怖故事》、《真探》等。

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